Subtile: BBC Forces of Nature with Brian Cox 1of4

网上找不到 Forces of Nature with Brian Cox 的中文字幕,于是自己翻译了一版。

BBC.Forces.of.Nature.with.Brian.Cox.1of4.The.Universe.in.a.Snowflake.1080p.BluRay.x264.cht&eng.srt

1 00:00:07,320 --> 00:00:09,560 大自然是美妙的... The natural world is beautiful...

2 00:00:10,840 --> 00:00:12,040 ...但也是复杂的 ...but complex.

3 00:00:16,240 --> 00:00:18,879 天空绚丽多彩 The skies dance with colour.

4 00:00:18,880 --> 00:00:21,559 耶! Yay! Yes!

5 00:00:21,560 --> 00:00:23,120 形状的形成... Shapes form...

6 00:00:24,760 --> 00:00:25,800 ...和消失 ...and disappear.

7 00:00:31,000 --> 00:00:33,599 这种看起来无比复杂的现象 But this seemingly infinite complexity

8 00:00:33,600 --> 00:00:35,680 只是更深层次原理的影子 is just a shadow of something deeper.

9 00:00:36,760 --> 00:00:38,560 是自然的基本规律 The underlying laws of nature.

10 00:00:45,280 --> 00:00:48,199 我们看到的世界是美丽的 The world is beautiful to look at.

11 00:00:48,200 --> 00:00:50,760 但世界更迷人的地方在于我们理解它的时候 But it's even more beautiful to understand.

12 00:01:15,920 --> 00:01:17,400 来吧 Come on.

13 00:01:21,680 --> 00:01:23,360 一个普通的下着雪的一天 A regular day in the snow.

14 00:01:28,600 --> 00:01:30,799 如果你仔细看 But if you look carefully,

15 00:01:30,800 --> 00:01:32,120 就会发现一些深奥的东西 there's something deeper.

16 00:01:36,800 --> 00:01:38,000 太有趣了! This is fun!

17 00:01:41,360 --> 00:01:42,920 每一片雪花... Every one...

18 00:01:44,120 --> 00:01:47,239 ...都是非常完美的 ...is perfect, pretty much.

19 00:01:47,240 --> 00:01:49,560 看起来像从薄纸片上剪下来的 It looks like they've been cut out of thin paper.

20 00:01:52,840 --> 00:01:54,120 我拿到了 I got one.

21 00:01:56,240 --> 00:01:59,919 雪花是复杂的东西 Snowflakes are complex, intricate things.

22 00:01:59,920 --> 00:02:03,679 它们看起来很相似,但每一片都不一样 They are all different but there's something similar about them.

23 00:02:03,680 --> 00:02:05,679 它们是美丽的 They are beautiful,

24 00:02:05,680 --> 00:02:08,159 是一种更深层次的美 but there is also, I think, a deeper beauty.

25 00:02:08,160 --> 00:02:10,399 这种美存在于一种概念里 And that beauty is in an idea.

26 00:02:10,400 --> 00:02:14,439 这个概念是关于相似性与差异性 The idea is that all the similarities and difference,

27 00:02:14,440 --> 00:02:17,439 用最基本的自然规律 the structure of snowflakes can be explained

28 00:02:17,440 --> 00:02:20,559 解释了雪花结构的构成 using a few simple laws of nature.

29 00:02:20,560 --> 00:02:23,359 而且这个概念是科学的核心 And that idea goes to the very heart of science,

30 00:02:23,360 --> 00:02:27,159 因为这些规律是美的 because those laws themselves are beautiful,

31 00:02:27,160 --> 00:02:28,639 是普适的 and they're universal.

32 00:02:28,640 --> 00:02:31,799 它们能解释万物 They can explain so many things,

33 00:02:31,800 --> 00:02:34,360 从雪花到恒星 from snowflakes to stars.

34 00:02:38,000 --> 00:02:39,720 雪花是怎样形成的? How do snowflakes form?

35 00:02:41,480 --> 00:02:43,279 为什么每一片雪花都不同 Why are they all different,

36 00:02:43,280 --> 00:02:45,200 又极其相似? and yet tantalisingly similar?

37 00:02:49,760 --> 00:02:51,559 这些问题同样适用于 These are questions that can be asked

38 00:02:51,560 --> 00:02:54,080 任何自然结构 about any naturally occurring structure.

39 00:02:57,560 --> 00:02:59,760 为什么蜂巢通常是六边形? Why are beehives regular hexagons?

40 00:03:00,920 --> 00:03:02,360 为什么冰山会漂浮? Why do icebergs float?

41 00:03:03,320 --> 00:03:04,760 为什么行星是球状的? Why are planets spherical?

42 00:03:05,760 --> 00:03:08,280 这跟潜水的老奶奶有什么关系? And what has this got to do with free-diving grannies?

43 00:03:12,000 --> 00:03:16,119 这些问题的答案能让我们发现 The answers allow us to glimpse the underlying laws of nature

44 00:03:16,120 --> 00:03:17,320 自然的基本规律 that shape them.

45 00:03:21,960 --> 00:03:24,560 这就是为什么,当你看雪花的时候... This is why, when you look at a snowflake...

46 00:03:27,320 --> 00:03:29,520 ...你看的是日常的世界里... ...you're peering beyond the everyday world...

47 00:03:30,520 --> 00:03:33,440 ...深奥的自然结构 ...at the deep structure of nature itself.

48 00:03:35,200 --> 00:03:36,960 整个宇宙都包含在雪花的结构里 The universe in a snowflake.

49 00:03:44,720 --> 00:03:46,959 哇!我能看到星星! Wow! I can see a star!

50 00:03:46,960 --> 00:03:50,359 看起来像是雪的结晶粘在了泡泡上 It really looks like snow crystals stuck to the bubble.

51 00:03:50,360 --> 00:03:53,600 噢!哇! Oh! Wow!

52 00:03:57,760 --> 00:04:01,560 有一种形状显现在宇宙的所有尺度上 There's a shape that appears at all scales in the universe.

53 00:04:06,720 --> 00:04:10,000 从太空看地球,地球是一个近乎完美的球体... Seen from space, the Earth is a near perfect sphere...

54 00:04:13,760 --> 00:04:17,040 ...由某种源于自然的基本力量塑造而成 ...sculpted by one of the fundamental forces of nature.

55 00:04:43,680 --> 00:04:46,319 Carla 和她的朋友们即将 Carla and her friends are about to pit themselves

56 00:04:46,320 --> 00:04:48,720 来对抗这种塑造了地球的力量 against the force that shaped our planet.

57 00:05:50,960 --> 00:05:53,280 这些孩子们正在 These children are going into battle...

58 00:05:54,520 --> 00:05:55,600 与地心引力斗争 ...with gravity.

59 00:06:09,600 --> 00:06:11,600 来的加泰罗尼亚小镇的人们... Towns from across Catalonia...

60 00:06:13,840 --> 00:06:16,640 ...聚集在一起参加一个激烈的竞争... ...have gathered to enter into a fierce competition...

61 00:06:19,920 --> 00:06:23,120 ...搭建一座尽可能高的人形塔 ...to build a human tower as high as possible.

62 00:06:31,720 --> 00:06:35,519 爸爸、妈妈带着他们的女儿 Mariana, Carla 来这里 Mum and Dad are here with their daughters, Mariana and Carla,

63 00:06:35,520 --> 00:06:37,760 代表他们的小镇 Vilafranca 参赛 to represent the town of Vilafranca.

64 00:06:41,840 --> 00:06:43,879 各个年龄段的人都参加了 People of all ages take part,

65 00:06:43,880 --> 00:06:46,159 队里最轻的成员 but it's the lightest members of the team,

66 00:06:46,160 --> 00:06:48,159 是五岁的孩子们 children as young as five,

67 00:06:48,160 --> 00:06:50,480 他们要勇敢的爬到人造塔的最高点 who ascend daringly to the summit.

68 00:07:00,160 --> 00:07:01,679 这个家庭信任团队中最有经验的成员 The family put their trust

69 00:07:01,680 --> 00:07:06,400 比如 David Merit in the most experienced members of the team, like David Merit.

70 00:07:38,840 --> 00:07:41,440 David 承担了他之上的所有人的重量... David feels the weight of everyone above him...

71 00:07:44,800 --> 00:07:47,240 ...当地心引力将他们往地面拉时 ...as gravity pulls them down to the ground.

72 00:07:51,280 --> 00:07:55,520 他知道对抗地心引力的秘诀是几何学 And he knows the secret to defying gravity is geometry.

73 00:08:07,320 --> 00:08:10,439 为了支撑住 David 和孩子们 To support David, and eventually the kids,

74 00:08:10,440 --> 00:08:13,239 其余的人在各个方向上 the rest of the town all push inwards

75 00:08:13,240 --> 00:08:16,319 使用相同的力量往里推 with equal force, in all directions,

76 00:08:16,320 --> 00:08:18,640 来支撑人造塔 buttressing the tower from all sides.

77 00:08:23,120 --> 00:08:26,400 这就产生了一个对称的形状 And this results in the emergence of a symmetrical shape.

78 00:08:27,640 --> 00:08:29,239 圆 A circle.

79 00:08:29,240 --> 00:08:32,160 没有其它的形状能提供给塔如此强度的支撑 No other shape gives the tower such strength.

80 00:08:44,120 --> 00:08:46,720 但是地心引力是难对付的 But gravity is unforgiving.

81 00:09:20,120 --> 00:09:23,640 如果你的孩子爬到塔顶,这是让人担心的 And that's a worry if your child is climbing to the top.

82 00:10:58,280 --> 00:11:01,880 很明显地心引力是无情的 It's clear that the force of gravity is unrelenting.

83 00:11:06,760 --> 00:11:11,640 倒塌的塔是地心引力塑造我们地球过程中的影子 The collapsing towers are shadows of the process that shaped our planet.

84 00:11:16,760 --> 00:11:19,800 这些人不仅仅是跌落到地面上 These people aren't just falling towards the ground.

85 00:11:22,200 --> 00:11:24,840 他们是向地球的中心跌落 They're falling towards the centre of the Earth.

86 00:11:25,840 --> 00:11:28,240 地心引力会把所有的东西往下拉 And the Earth's gravity pulls everything down.

87 00:11:31,000 --> 00:11:33,040 不管是人还是雪花... From people to snowflakes...

88 00:11:37,320 --> 00:11:39,880 ...还是组成地球的一颗石头 ...to the very rock that the Earth is made of.

89 00:11:41,280 --> 00:11:44,480 这就是为什么地球是球形的 And this is ultimately why the Earth is spherical.

90 00:11:46,840 --> 00:11:50,399 那为什么地心引力会把物体雕刻成球状的呢? So why does gravity sculpt things into spheres?

91 00:11:50,400 --> 00:11:54,240 好吧,首先要说的是,这不一定 Well, the first thing to say is that it doesn't, necessarily.

92 00:11:56,760 --> 00:11:58,200 如果我捡起一个雪球... If I pick up a snowball...

93 00:12:00,280 --> 00:12:03,000 ...它不是球形的,是一个不规则形状 ...it's not spherical. Kind of an irregular shape.

94 00:12:05,080 --> 00:12:07,479 但是如果我对它施加压力 But if I apply pressure to it,

95 00:12:07,480 --> 00:12:11,200 在各个方向均匀地挤压它... squash it, evenly, in all directions...

96 00:12:12,440 --> 00:12:15,479 ...然后我可以把它变成一个球体 ...then I can turn that into a sphere.

97 00:12:15,480 --> 00:12:19,039 这就是地心引力的作用 And that is what's happening with gravity.

98 00:12:19,040 --> 00:12:21,159 当我开始施加压力时 As I start adding mass to it,

99 00:12:21,160 --> 00:12:24,319 引力也变大了 that gravitational pull becomes bigger,

100 00:12:24,320 --> 00:12:27,119 所以我的得到了一个观点 so I'll get to a point where this snowball,

101 00:12:27,120 --> 00:12:28,879 如果我一直施加压力 if I kept adding mass to it,

102 00:12:28,880 --> 00:12:32,719 雪球的的表面会承受巨大的压力 would be so massive that the gravitational pull on its surface

103 00:12:32,720 --> 00:12:37,359 挤压整个雪球 would be so strong that it would start to squash the material

104 00:12:37,360 --> 00:12:38,999 导致雪球跟刚开始的形状不一样 out of which it is made.

105 00:12:39,000 --> 00:12:40,479 在雪这个例子中 In this case, snow,

106 00:12:40,480 --> 00:12:43,000 或在行星、月球、岩石的例子中 or in the case of a planet or moon, the rock.

107 00:12:43,960 --> 00:12:49,399 压力是从各个方向施加到物体表面 That pressure exerts on the surface equally in all directions,

108 00:12:49,400 --> 00:12:53,400 因为地心引力的在各个方向上的作用的均等的 because gravity works equally in all directions.

109 00:12:54,680 --> 00:12:56,079 你可能会问 You could ask the question,

110 00:12:56,080 --> 00:12:59,559 引力到底有多大 how much matter do I need for gravity to get strong enough

111 00:12:59,560 --> 00:13:02,439 才能改变岩石的结构 to start overcoming the strength of rock,

112 00:13:02,440 --> 00:13:04,759 把物体雕刻成球体? and sculpting things into spheres?

113 00:13:04,760 --> 00:13:08,599 最低限度引力的大小有一个名字 Well, that minimum size has got a name.

114 00:13:08,600 --> 00:13:11,039 这是个很好的名字,它被称为马铃薯半径 It's a brilliant name. It is called the potato radius.

115 00:13:11,040 --> 00:13:12,279 你能知道为什么 You can see why.

116 00:13:12,280 --> 00:13:16,359 因为万物对于强大的地心引力来说都太小了 Because things that are too small for gravity to be strong enough

117 00:13:16,360 --> 00:13:19,600 引力把他们的形状雕刻成类似于马铃薯的模样 to sculpt them look like misshapen potatoes.

118 00:13:22,640 --> 00:13:25,680 最棒的是你甚至不需要想象 The great thing is you don't even need to imagine it.

119 00:13:26,760 --> 00:13:28,239 你只需要推测就能验证答案 You can calculate it.

120 00:13:28,240 --> 00:13:31,239 我今天早上粗略地推导,并得到了一个答案 I did that this morning, and I got an answer, just roughly,

121 00:13:31,240 --> 00:13:33,719 半径介于 100 到 200km 之间 of between 100 and 200km.

122 00:13:33,720 --> 00:13:35,359 这太棒了 The brilliant thing,

123 00:13:35,360 --> 00:13:38,679 如果你仰望星空 the most beautiful thing is if you look up into space,

124 00:13:38,680 --> 00:13:41,399 看看火星、土星、木星的卫星 and look at the moons of Mars and Saturn and Jupiter,

125 00:13:41,400 --> 00:13:44,119 或是太阳系中其它的天体 and objects out there in the solar system,

126 00:13:44,120 --> 00:13:46,599 你会发现 you'll find that, roughly speaking,

127 00:13:46,600 --> 00:13:49,679 如果它们的半径大于 200km if their radius is bigger than about 200km,

128 00:13:49,680 --> 00:13:51,239 它们就近似一个完美的球体 they're beautiful spheres,

129 00:13:51,240 --> 00:13:54,399 如果它们的半径小于 200km and if their radius is less than about 200km,

130 00:13:54,400 --> 00:13:57,399 它们看起来就像一个马铃薯 they look more like misshapen potatoes.

131 00:13:57,400 --> 00:13:59,320 所以你只需要推测就能验证答案 So you can calculate it.

132 00:14:03,880 --> 00:14:07,040 如果天体很小,就不容易变成一个球体 If you're small, spheres don't come easily.

133 00:14:10,600 --> 00:14:13,959 即使是小行星或者卫星 Even asteroids or moons don't quite manage it.

134 00:14:13,960 --> 00:14:17,320 马铃薯形状可能最合适的比喻 The potato shape might be as close as you can get.

135 00:14:22,960 --> 00:14:26,280 但是如果是一个行星一样大的天体,变成球体就很顺理成章了 But when you're the size of a planet, spheres come naturally.

136 00:14:34,720 --> 00:14:36,919 45 亿年前 4.5 billion years ago,

137 00:14:36,920 --> 00:14:40,839 环绕太阳的岩石开始聚集在一起 rocks circling the sun began sticking together,

138 00:14:40,840 --> 00:14:44,520 直到它们有足够的质量让重力产生作用... until they had sufficient mass for gravity to really get to work...

139 00:14:45,640 --> 00:14:50,039 ...从马铃薯形状变成一个球体 ...turning potato shapes into one very important sphere,

140 00:14:50,040 --> 00:14:51,320 悬浮在太空中 suspended in space.

141 00:14:58,200 --> 00:15:02,199 宇宙定律将我们的行星 A universal law sculpted the familiar, elegant,

142 00:15:02,200 --> 00:15:04,120 塑造成了熟悉的、优雅的、对称的形状 symmetrical shape of our planet.

143 00:15:11,960 --> 00:15:13,959 但是行星表面 But closer to the surface,

144 00:15:13,960 --> 00:15:17,240 还是充满了不规则的形状 it's littered with endless shapes and forms.

145 00:15:21,640 --> 00:15:25,199 在这些自然形成的结构中 And in every one of these naturally occurring structures,

146 00:15:25,200 --> 00:15:29,560 有一个简单的、基本的规律等着被发现。 there are a simple, underlying laws waiting to be glimpsed.

147 00:15:35,760 --> 00:15:36,959 这里是喜马拉雅山脉 Here in the Himalayas,

148 00:15:36,960 --> 00:15:41,360 有一种形状反映了一个数学的基本定律 there's a shape that's a shadow of a fundamental mathematical law.

149 00:15:44,880 --> 00:15:47,120 它由喜马拉雅蜜蜂守护着 It's guarded by the Himalayan honeybee.

150 00:15:50,800 --> 00:15:53,520 喜马拉雅蜜蜂是地球上最大的蜜蜂物种 The largest species of honeybee on the planet.

151 00:15:55,920 --> 00:16:00,319 在它们警觉的眼睛下采集蜂蜜 And collecting honey from under their watchful compound eyes

152 00:16:00,320 --> 00:16:02,920 是最危险的工作之一 is one of the most dangerous jobs you could imagine.

153 00:16:23,640 --> 00:16:26,440 今天是这个年轻人第一次尝试 And today is the first time for one of the young villagers.

154 00:16:27,440 --> 00:16:31,039 Min 和他的侄子 Hira Min and his nephew Hira will be the ones leading the hunt

155 00:16:31,040 --> 00:16:32,839 即将开始采集蜂蜜 for the precious honey.

156 00:16:32,840 --> 00:16:35,559 蜂蜜的药用价值很高 It's prized for its medicinal properties,

157 00:16:35,560 --> 00:16:37,160 能卖个好价钱 and sells for a high price.

158 00:16:51,720 --> 00:16:54,639 蜂巢能够容纳大量的蜜蜂 Hidden beneath the seething mass of bodies

159 00:16:54,640 --> 00:16:58,120 由一些精心设计的六边形结构构成 sits a network of exquisitely engineered hexagons.

160 00:17:03,040 --> 00:17:05,599 蜂蜜看起来像建筑大师一样 The bees appear to be master builders,

161 00:17:05,600 --> 00:17:09,760 它们使用建筑学的精度来执行结构化计算 performing structural calculations with architectural precision.

162 00:17:23,480 --> 00:17:26,959 蜜蜂得益于某种数学定律 The bees benefit from a hidden mathematical law

163 00:17:26,960 --> 00:17:31,279 解释了为什么要建造六边形结构来存储蜂蜜 that explains why they build hexagons to store their honey.

164 00:17:31,280 --> 00:17:35,079 古隆族人一年会去两次山上 And twice a year, the Gurung people head into the mountains

165 00:17:35,080 --> 00:17:36,960 采集蜜蜂的蜂蜜 to exploit the bees' secret.

166 00:17:41,320 --> 00:17:43,959 这是 Hira 第一次尝试 Because it's Hira's first time,

167 00:17:43,960 --> 00:17:46,840 所以对他来说是个特别的挑战 this trip will be particularly challenging.

168 00:18:30,440 --> 00:18:33,839 为了防止天敌 The bees make their hives as inaccessible as possible

169 00:18:33,840 --> 00:18:35,720 蜜蜂将蜂巢建在了难以接近的地方 to protect them from predators.

170 00:19:09,360 --> 00:19:11,559 蜜蜂正在保卫它们的巢穴 The hives the bees are defending

171 00:19:11,560 --> 00:19:17,039 contain a vivid, visible solution to a deep mathematical problem,

172 00:19:17,040 --> 00:19:18,520 and a very practical one.

173 00:19:20,480 --> 00:19:23,239 它们需要储存蜂蜜来维持种群的繁殖 They need to store honey to sustain their colony

174 00:19:23,240 --> 00:19:24,760 以此来度过漫长的冬天 through the long winter months.

175 00:19:25,920 --> 00:19:27,760 它们用蜡来建造蜂巢 They build their hives out of wax.

176 00:19:29,960 --> 00:19:33,159 但蜜蜂每产生 1 克蜡 But for every gram of wax a bee produces,

177 00:19:33,160 --> 00:19:36,400 需要消耗超过 6 克的蜂蜜 it will have to consume more than six grams of honey.

178 00:19:39,320 --> 00:19:42,159 得益于精妙的建筑结构 So they benefit from building efficiently,

179 00:19:42,160 --> 00:19:44,560 它们可以尽可能的少用蜡 using as little wax as possible.

180 00:20:39,080 --> 00:20:42,200 蜜蜂的螫针像注射针头一样 Each sting is like a hypodermic needle.

181 00:20:43,480 --> 00:20:45,920 蜜蜂蜇了之后,它们就死了 After the bees sting, they die.

182 00:20:49,120 --> 00:20:52,359 牺牲自己来保卫蜂巢 The ultimate sacrifice to guard the hexagons

183 00:20:52,360 --> 00:20:54,120 和蜂蜜的安全 and the honey they hold.

184 00:22:14,400 --> 00:22:15,879 对 Hira 来说,这是 For Hira, this is all about

185 00:22:15,880 --> 00:22:19,520 发扬古隆族蜂蜜采集的传统 keeping the Gurung tradition of honey hunting alive.

186 00:22:22,640 --> 00:22:25,560 六边形结构是所有的核心 And the hexagon is at the heart of it all.

187 00:22:45,040 --> 00:22:48,040 那么蜜蜂为什么要建造六边形的蜂巢呢? So why DO bees build hexagonal honeycombs?

188 00:22:50,440 --> 00:22:53,239 这是一个好问题 Well, that is, in fact, a very good question.

189 00:22:53,240 --> 00:22:55,080 实际上是一个数学难题 It's actually a mathematical question.

190 00:22:57,800 --> 00:22:59,079 问题棘手的地方在于 The problem is,

191 00:22:59,080 --> 00:23:04,239 如何使用最小的量 how do I divide up a volume into shapes of equal size

192 00:23:04,240 --> 00:23:06,200 将体积划分为相等的形状? using the minimum amount of stuff?

193 00:23:07,320 --> 00:23:09,839 为什么这对蜜蜂很重要? Now, why does that matter to a bee?

194 00:23:09,840 --> 00:23:11,359 因为用来划分的成分是蜡 Because that stuff is wax,

195 00:23:11,360 --> 00:23:14,799 蜡对于蜜蜂来说相当珍贵 and wax is extremely valuable to the bees.

196 00:23:14,800 --> 00:23:18,079 那么,什么形状才是最优解呢? So, what shape should it be?

197 00:23:18,080 --> 00:23:20,119 是方形? Should it be squares?

198 00:23:20,120 --> 00:23:21,759 或者是三角形? Or should it be triangles?

199 00:23:21,760 --> 00:23:23,279 肯定不是圆形 You can see it can't be circles

200 00:23:23,280 --> 00:23:25,279 当你把圆放在一起时 because circles, when you pack them together,

201 00:23:25,280 --> 00:23:27,679 会留下一些间隙,导致利用率太低 leave gaps, so they're not very efficient.

202 00:23:27,680 --> 00:23:32,079 又或者六边形? Or could it be that hexagons are the most efficient?

203 00:23:32,080 --> 00:23:35,519 这个问题听起来很简单 Well, that is actually a simple sounding question,

204 00:23:35,520 --> 00:23:37,679 要解释它却非常复杂 with a very complicated answer.

205 00:23:37,680 --> 00:23:40,319 这是数学史上古老的问题之一 It's one of the oldest questions in mathematics.

206 00:23:40,320 --> 00:23:41,679 它有一个名字 It's got a name, actually.

207 00:23:41,680 --> 00:23:43,599 叫做蜂巢猜想 It's called the honeycomb conjecture.

208 00:23:43,600 --> 00:23:48,559 数学家们已经研究了几千年了 Mathematicians have worked on it for thousands and thousands of years,

209 00:23:48,560 --> 00:23:52,520 直到最近蜂窝猜想才被证明 and it's only recently that the honeycomb conjecture was proved.

210 00:23:53,560 --> 00:23:54,760 这是推导证明 Here is one of the proofs.

211 00:23:56,160 --> 00:23:57,320 一长篇论文 A huge paper.

212 00:23:58,320 --> 00:24:01,320 每一页都充满了复杂的数学推导过程 Pages and pages of complex mathematics...

213 00:24:02,440 --> 00:24:06,479 证明了六边形确实是最有效率的形状 ...and it turns out that the hexagon IS the most efficient shape.

214 00:24:06,480 --> 00:24:10,759 蜜蜂在几千年前 The bees knew what human mathematicians didn't know

215 00:24:10,760 --> 00:24:12,199 就知道了这个结果 for thousands of years.

216 00:24:12,200 --> 00:24:15,319 我所说的“知道”是一个不严谨的表达 Actually, I'm using "know" in quite a loose sense, there.

217 00:24:15,320 --> 00:24:18,919 对于蜜蜂是怎么做到的 There's still a great deal of debate amongst biologists

218 00:24:18,920 --> 00:24:21,439 生物学家之间仍有很多争论 as to how the bees actually do it.

219 00:24:21,440 --> 00:24:25,439 他们是用某种本能的行为 Do they build hexagons from scratch

220 00:24:25,440 --> 00:24:28,639 从头开始造六边形? using some kind of instinctive behaviour?

221 00:24:28,640 --> 00:24:30,559 或者他们只是造了一个更简单的形状? Or do they in fact build a simpler shape?

222 00:24:30,560 --> 00:24:35,159 也许是圆形,然后因为蜡受热,它会变形 Perhaps circles, and then, because the wax heats up, it can deform,

223 00:24:35,160 --> 00:24:37,119 由于物理学定律 and the laws of physics themselves

224 00:24:37,120 --> 00:24:39,559 将圆形变为六边形? change the circles into hexagons?

225 00:24:39,560 --> 00:24:41,599 目前还没有达成一致 That's still not agreed upon,

226 00:24:41,600 --> 00:24:45,879 但是数学家和蜜蜂都认可 but what is agreed upon by the mathematicians and the bees

227 00:24:45,880 --> 00:24:48,599 六边形是最有效的形状 is the hexagon is the most efficient shape.

228 00:24:48,600 --> 00:24:50,599 你知道了,这是件美妙的事情 That just shows you. It's a beautiful thing.

229 00:24:50,600 --> 00:24:53,959 数学是普适的语音 Mathematics is the universal language,

230 00:24:53,960 --> 00:24:56,359 当你看着一个完美的蜂巢 and when you look at a perfect honeycomb,

231 00:24:56,360 --> 00:25:00,879 你会看到数学语言的影子 you see a shadow of that language of mathematics

232 00:25:00,880 --> 00:25:03,640 由蜜蜂建造的 made real by bees.

233 00:25:10,160 --> 00:25:12,880 完美的形状揭示了简单的规律 Perfect shapes reveal simple laws.

234 00:25:18,440 --> 00:25:20,319 不管是球状行星 Whether it's spherical planets,

235 00:25:20,320 --> 00:25:22,240 被引力塑造 sculpted by gravity...

236 00:25:26,240 --> 00:25:28,320 将我们推向地球的中心 ...pulling us to the centre of the Earth...

237 00:25:32,880 --> 00:25:37,240 还是数学意义上最有效率的六边形蜂巢 ...or the mathematically refined efficiency of hexagonal honeycombs.

238 00:25:41,160 --> 00:25:44,360 我们看到的形状背后是简单的规律 Simple laws underpin the shapes we can see.

239 00:25:45,520 --> 00:25:47,160 这些规律是普适的 And they're universal.

240 00:25:50,600 --> 00:25:52,679 但这些简单法则的作用 But the action of these simple laws

241 00:25:52,680 --> 00:25:56,120 似乎与复杂的生命形态矛盾 seems at odds with the complex shapes of life.

242 00:26:09,120 --> 00:26:11,079 这条河是某种生物的家园 These shallow springs are home to

243 00:26:11,080 --> 00:26:13,960 它们有着不太优雅的形状 one of nature's seemingly less elegant shapes.

244 00:26:23,240 --> 00:26:24,280 海牛 The manatee.

245 00:26:25,720 --> 00:26:27,599 就像所有海洋动物一样 Like all marine animals,

246 00:26:27,600 --> 00:26:30,119 它们不受地心引力的影响 they're free from the effects of gravity.

247 00:26:30,120 --> 00:26:32,800 不需要强壮的骨骼来支撑它们的体重 No need for strong bones to support their weight.

248 00:26:34,480 --> 00:26:38,040 但它们受物理学定律的影响并没有完全自由 But they don't have complete freedom from the laws of physics.

249 00:26:42,960 --> 00:26:44,279 现在是冬天 It's winter,

250 00:26:44,280 --> 00:26:48,079 因为是早上... and if the water temperature here drops below 20 degrees...

251 00:26:48,080 --> 00:26:50,519 河水的温度低于 20 摄氏度... Due to cool temperatures Friday morning...

252 00:26:50,520 --> 00:26:52,320 ...对于海牛来说,这却是致命的 ...for the manatee, it's deadly.

253 00:26:53,560 --> 00:26:57,000 ...为了寻找更温暖的水环境,它们面临更多危险 ...very dangerous, in search of warmer aquatic environments.

254 00:26:58,440 --> 00:27:02,080 海牛是素食动物,比如这只母海牛 Manatees, like this female, are vegetarians.

255 00:27:03,720 --> 00:27:07,600 她差不多有 10 英尺长 Basically, she is a 10ft long aquatic cow with no legs.

256 00:27:08,560 --> 00:27:13,279 她每天必须吃掉 50 公斤的叶子和海草 To stay warm, she has to consume up to 50kg of leaves and seagrass

257 00:27:13,280 --> 00:27:14,360 来维持体温 every day.

258 00:27:15,320 --> 00:27:18,839 有时候她们也会吃其它的食物 And the females here are eating for others, too.

259 00:27:18,840 --> 00:27:21,919 这只母海牛正在喂养两只小海牛 This one is suckling two young calves.

260 00:27:21,920 --> 00:27:24,200 天气越来越冷了 And the weather is only getting colder.

261 00:27:34,800 --> 00:27:35,840 看起来不错 Looking good.

262 00:27:40,920 --> 00:27:42,079 这是 Doug There's Doug.

263 00:27:42,080 --> 00:27:44,239 Doug 喜欢上这里了 Doug likes it up here now.

264 00:27:44,240 --> 00:27:47,879 研究员 Wayne Hartley 正在做统计 Researcher Wayne Hartley is doing this morning's headcount,

265 00:27:47,880 --> 00:27:49,840 是海牛普查工作的一部分 part of a manatee census.

266 00:27:54,360 --> 00:27:56,720 早上做这种工作... It's a special thing to come to work...

267 00:27:58,520 --> 00:28:00,559 ...是件特别的事情 ...come down in the morning,

268 00:28:00,560 --> 00:28:01,680 很安静 and it's quiet.

269 00:28:02,840 --> 00:28:04,600 蒸汽从水里冒出来了 The steam's coming off the water.

270 00:28:09,960 --> 00:28:13,680 我能听见海牛浮出水面时“呼呼”的呼吸声 I can hear the manatees out there breathing. It's just "whoosh".

271 00:28:15,920 --> 00:28:17,919 它们很安静 And they are so peaceful.

272 00:28:17,920 --> 00:28:19,440 很平静 They are so calm.

273 00:28:21,680 --> 00:28:25,759 观察海牛有助于控制你的血压 Just watching manatees has got to be good for your blood pressure,

274 00:28:25,760 --> 00:28:27,680 或者舒缓你其它不适的地方 and anything else that may ail you.

275 00:28:37,960 --> 00:28:40,639 生物学家 Amy Tegg 和 Wayne 一起工作 Biologist Amy Tegg is working with Wayne

276 00:28:40,640 --> 00:28:42,720 为海牛做健康检查 to do a health check on the families.

277 00:28:44,520 --> 00:28:47,999 好吧,它只是随便逛逛,看看情况 Well, he's just sort of hanging around, checking things out.

278 00:28:48,000 --> 00:28:51,880 海牛是非常温顺的动物 Manatees are very docile, gentle creatures.

279 00:28:52,800 --> 00:28:54,559 但它们也非常好奇 But they are very curious.

280 00:28:54,560 --> 00:28:56,199 对于生活环境里的新鲜事物 Anything new in their environment,

281 00:28:56,200 --> 00:28:58,399 它们经常想要看一看 they often like to come check out.

282 00:28:58,400 --> 00:29:01,160 所以它可能只是想了解我 So he's probably just checking me out.

283 00:29:02,440 --> 00:29:04,280 是的,它在咬我的脚 Yeah, he's just chewing on my flipper.

284 00:29:05,320 --> 00:29:07,160 温度是 23.5 摄氏度 Got 23.5 degrees Celsius.

285 00:29:08,320 --> 00:29:11,439 海牛家族是从更冷的水域过来的 Manatee families are drawn in from colder waters,

286 00:29:11,440 --> 00:29:13,000 因为这里的水更温暖 because this is a hot spring.

287 00:29:14,040 --> 00:29:16,599 刚好适合它们生活 And some make it just in time.

288 00:29:16,600 --> 00:29:18,920 它们对水温很敏感 He is severely cold stressed.

289 00:29:20,640 --> 00:29:22,720 当水温太低时,它们不太愿意进食 With the cold stress, they don't eat.

290 00:29:24,000 --> 00:29:25,880 它们的免疫系统会停止工作 Their immune system shuts down.

291 00:29:26,840 --> 00:29:29,919 只在水里维持生命体征 They're here to keep themselves alive in the winter.

292 00:29:29,920 --> 00:29:33,240 它们非常需要温暖的水域 They really require warm water.

293 00:29:37,760 --> 00:29:42,280 它们看起来像海豹一样用脂肪来保暖 It might look like these animals keep warm using blubber, like seals.

294 00:29:43,320 --> 00:29:44,999 实际上它们并没有脂肪 But they're not fat.

295 00:29:45,000 --> 00:29:46,200 它们只是很圆 They're round.

296 00:29:47,360 --> 00:29:48,839 根据物理学角度来说 In terms of pure physics,

297 00:29:48,840 --> 00:29:51,800 球体是维持体温最好的方式 the best way to stay warm is to be a sphere.

298 00:29:56,240 --> 00:30:00,280 球体的表面积与体积之比是任何形状中最小的 It has the smallest surface area to volume ratio of any shape.

299 00:30:01,240 --> 00:30:03,640 防止热量流失 Less area for heat to escape from.

300 00:30:05,200 --> 00:30:08,799 这是自然形成的一个美丽的例子 A beautiful example of the naturally occurring shape

301 00:30:08,800 --> 00:30:11,360 反映了更深层次的数学定律 reflecting a deeper mathematical law.

302 00:30:12,760 --> 00:30:15,920 海牛很可能是地球上最接近球形的哺乳动物 The manatee could well be the most spherical mammal on earth.

303 00:30:17,120 --> 00:30:18,600 多么美妙啊 What a wonderful thing to be.

304 00:30:24,600 --> 00:30:26,040 对不起,他们的呼出的气味很臭 Sorry, their breath stinks.

305 00:30:27,440 --> 00:30:30,920 有点像发热的卡车轮胎 To me, it smells like the inside of a hot truck tyre.

306 00:30:35,200 --> 00:30:37,720 当然它们身体不是一个完美的球体 But, of course, they're not perfect spheres.

307 00:30:39,720 --> 00:30:43,200 因为有很多其它的因素影响形状的构成 There are many other competing factors that determine their shape.

308 00:30:44,120 --> 00:30:50,440 和所有动物一样它们为了活着,必须呼吸、进食、移动 Like all animals, they have to live, breathe, eat and move.

309 00:30:53,360 --> 00:30:55,880 海牛的自然栖息地正在缩小 The manatee's natural habitat is shrinking.

310 00:30:56,840 --> 00:30:59,120 他们需要在其他地方找到温暖 And they need to find warmth elsewhere.

311 00:31:02,840 --> 00:31:05,239 发电厂为 900 万人 This power station helps provide energy

312 00:31:05,240 --> 00:31:07,959 提供电力 for around nine million people,

313 00:31:07,960 --> 00:31:10,399 与此同时也会排放发电过程中产生的热水 and in the process warms the water

314 00:31:10,400 --> 00:31:14,000 在冬天,这些热水为佛罗里达近半数的海牛提供了一个温暖的生活环境 that keeps over half of Florida's manatees alive through the winter.

315 00:31:18,760 --> 00:31:21,559 Wayne 和 Amy 研究了这些海牛 The same families that Wayne and Amy study

316 00:31:21,560 --> 00:31:24,880 其中有些来自 300 公里意外的地方... can end up here - over 300km away...

317 00:31:26,400 --> 00:31:27,839 ...妈妈和幼崽们 ...where their mothers and calves

318 00:31:27,840 --> 00:31:30,120 能尽可能的保持体温... can hold on to as much heat as possible...

319 00:31:31,320 --> 00:31:33,120 因为它们圆形的身体 ...because of their round bodies.

320 00:31:35,600 --> 00:31:38,719 对于物理学家来说,海牛的完美形状 To a physicist, the perfect shape for a manatee

321 00:31:38,720 --> 00:31:41,359 是一个对称的球体 would be a symmetrical sphere.

322 00:31:41,360 --> 00:31:43,520 但是生物学家想的更复杂 But biology complicates things.

323 00:31:45,360 --> 00:31:47,239 海牛不可能只是在周围游荡 Manatees can't just bob around

324 00:31:47,240 --> 00:31:49,640 等待食物或温暖的到来 waiting for food or warmth to come to them.

325 00:31:51,160 --> 00:31:53,720 它们需要鳍和尾巴才能活动 They need fins and a tail to move around.

326 00:31:55,440 --> 00:31:58,840 不管是去温泉还是去发电站 Whether that is to a hot spring or to a power station.

327 00:32:10,560 --> 00:32:15,759 大自然的力量塑造和限制着万物的形状 The forces of nature sculpt and restrict the shapes of all things,

328 00:32:15,760 --> 00:32:20,039 无生命的,如卵石、岩石或悬崖 the inanimate, like pebbles or rocks or cliffs,

329 00:32:20,040 --> 00:32:22,080 或是有生命的 or living things.

330 00:32:24,560 --> 00:32:28,320 但是基本物理不是塑造生命的唯一力量 But of course, basic physics is not the only force shaping life.

331 00:32:32,680 --> 00:32:34,959 通过自然选择的进化 Evolution, by natural selection,

332 00:32:34,960 --> 00:32:37,439 也会随着时间的推移塑造生物 moulds living things over time

333 00:32:37,440 --> 00:32:39,479 适应环境 in response to their environment

334 00:32:39,480 --> 00:32:42,120 以及它们与其他生命形式的相互作用 and their interaction with other life forms.

335 00:32:46,120 --> 00:32:48,680 已经有几十亿年的历史了 And it's had billions of years to do it.

336 00:32:51,080 --> 00:32:54,999 所以你不了解生物进化史 So you can't understand the shape of living things

337 00:32:55,000 --> 00:32:57,520 就不能理解生物的形状 without understanding their evolutionary history.

338 00:33:30,800 --> 00:33:33,559 我们都是实践 We are all the product of our experiences,

339 00:33:33,560 --> 00:33:36,879 历史、文化的产物 our history, our culture.

340 00:33:36,880 --> 00:33:39,359 我们的生活留下不可磨灭的印记 Our lives make an indelible impression

341 00:33:39,360 --> 00:33:41,520 让我们每个人都与众不同 and make us all different.

342 00:33:47,040 --> 00:33:49,040 但我们也都很相似 But we are also all similar.

343 00:33:50,080 --> 00:33:52,679 不仅仅是每个人类 Not just to each other as human beings,

344 00:33:52,680 --> 00:33:56,159 对地球上所有动物来说都是一样 but to countless other animals on Earth.

345 00:33:56,160 --> 00:33:58,920 我们之间是有相似的地方的 We are obviously related.

346 00:34:02,320 --> 00:34:06,440 最明显的是我们身体的对称性 Most obviously through the symmetry of our bodies.

347 00:34:28,280 --> 00:34:30,879 蔡太太和金小姐 Mrs Chae and Miss Kim

348 00:34:30,880 --> 00:34:33,159 她们是海女,是海洋的女人 are haenyeo, are women of the sea.

349 00:34:33,160 --> 00:34:36,320 他们是在海边收集海鲜长大的 They've grown up collecting seafood along these shores.

350 00:34:37,600 --> 00:34:39,360 现在仍然如此 And they still do.

351 00:34:52,360 --> 00:34:54,719 海女是一种濒危的传统文化 The haenyeo are part of a dying tradition.

352 00:34:54,720 --> 00:34:57,320 年轻人对这种传统已经不感兴趣了 Not many youngsters are interested any more.

353 00:34:59,080 --> 00:35:02,680 这很难,尤其是对于 70 多岁的老人 It's hard work, especially if you're in your 70s.

354 00:35:31,080 --> 00:35:34,480 现在,女人们正在抓海螺 Right now, the women are catching conch, or sea snails.

355 00:35:38,000 --> 00:35:40,039 这是一年中的关键时期 It's a crucial time of year,

356 00:35:40,040 --> 00:35:42,640 她们有机会可以赚更多的钱 when they have a chance to make the most money.

357 00:35:55,120 --> 00:35:57,479 为了食物而进行自由潜水 The tradition of freediving for food

358 00:35:57,480 --> 00:36:00,719 是女人们文化史的一部分 is part of these women's cultural history.

359 00:36:00,720 --> 00:36:03,559 但人类形体本身的细节 But the details of the human form itself,

360 00:36:03,560 --> 00:36:08,639 特别是对称性,允许他们潜水、游泳、搜寻食物 in particular, its symmetry that allows them to dive, swim and hunt,

361 00:36:08,640 --> 00:36:10,720 是他们进化史的一部分 is part of their evolutionary history.

362 00:36:50,160 --> 00:36:52,999 For Mrs Chae and Miss Kim,

363 00:36:53,000 --> 00:36:55,080 对蔡太太和金小姐来说,这一切都是为了寻找食物 this is all about the search for food.

364 00:36:58,840 --> 00:37:02,120 这就是她们身体对称结构的由来 And that's where the symmetrical structure of their bodies comes in.

365 00:37:03,080 --> 00:37:05,919 几亿年前这个蓝图 A blueprint that started out here in the oceans

366 00:37:05,920 --> 00:37:08,120 开始在海洋中发源 hundreds of millions of years ago.

367 00:37:11,680 --> 00:37:14,560 所有动物都与这相关 Very few animals have steered clear of it.

368 00:37:38,080 --> 00:37:42,479 生命的演化就是一场竞争 Life is, and always has been, a competition.

369 00:37:42,480 --> 00:37:44,799 在这个不受拘束的世界里 In a free-floating world,

370 00:37:44,800 --> 00:37:48,800 生命采用不同类型的对称来获得它所需要的东西 life grew to adopt different types of symmetry to get what it needed.

371 00:37:51,560 --> 00:37:55,239 有些动物变成圆的,或是径向对称的 Some animals became round, or radially symmetric,

372 00:37:55,240 --> 00:37:59,080 围绕中心轴组织他们的感觉器官 organising their sensory organs around a central axis.

373 00:38:00,120 --> 00:38:02,119 他们不去追寻食物 Rather than chasing down food,

374 00:38:02,120 --> 00:38:04,200 而是等食物送上门来 they waited for food to come to them.

375 00:38:05,880 --> 00:38:09,119 但为了追捕猎物 But in order to really go after prey,

376 00:38:09,120 --> 00:38:11,960 得把策略抛在脑后 you need to leave that strategy behind.

377 00:38:14,680 --> 00:38:16,880 你需要从中间分开 You need to be divided down the middle.

378 00:38:17,840 --> 00:38:21,559 两侧对称 That gives you two sides - bilateral symmetry.

379 00:38:21,560 --> 00:38:24,040 分为左和右 Basically, you have a left and a right.

380 00:38:28,000 --> 00:38:32,879 在对称性的基础上,能够用手 And you can build on this plan with arms to grab and search

381 00:38:32,880 --> 00:38:34,480 用头、用尾巴 and a head and a tail.

382 00:38:36,160 --> 00:38:39,119 所有这一切都意味着你可以确定自己的方向 All this means you can orientate yourself

383 00:38:39,120 --> 00:38:41,600 来定位猎物 and really target your prey.

384 00:38:49,880 --> 00:38:54,240 自然选择已经迭代了数亿年 This body plan has been selected for over hundreds of millions of years.

385 00:38:55,240 --> 00:38:57,320 它赋予了生命生存优势 It confers a survival advantage.

386 00:38:58,840 --> 00:39:01,639 结果发现所有有大脑的动物 And it turns out that all animals with brains

387 00:39:01,640 --> 00:39:03,760 都是两侧对称的 are bilaterally symmetrical.

388 00:39:08,720 --> 00:39:11,839 两侧对称提供了灵活性 Bilateral symmetry provided the agility

389 00:39:11,840 --> 00:39:15,199 驱动了精明的捕食者 that drove a spiral of cunning and fast predators

390 00:39:15,200 --> 00:39:17,040 同时也驱动了精明的猎物 and skittish, speedy prey.

391 00:39:47,800 --> 00:39:52,719 人类身体美妙的对称性对于我们来说理所当然 The beautiful symmetry of the human body, which we all take for granted,

392 00:39:52,720 --> 00:39:56,400 是伟大历史的产物... is the product of a sweeping, majestic story...

393 00:39:58,040 --> 00:40:01,000 ...能够追溯到地球上最早的生命。 ...stretching back to some of the earliest life on Earth.

394 00:40:10,960 --> 00:40:14,919 我们能通过生物的历史 So we can understand the symmetry of organisms

395 00:40:14,920 --> 00:40:16,840 理解生物的对称性 by understanding their history.

396 00:40:19,720 --> 00:40:21,279 你基本上看到了 You're essentially seeing

397 00:40:21,280 --> 00:40:24,039 自然选择的结果 the results of evolution by natural selection

398 00:40:24,040 --> 00:40:27,920 经历了几亿年甚至十几亿年 over hundreds of millions, even billions of years.

399 00:40:31,920 --> 00:40:34,719 但是你如何理解 But how do you understand

400 00:40:34,720 --> 00:40:37,759 雪花的结构和对称性呢? the structure and symmetry of a snowflake?

401 00:40:37,760 --> 00:40:40,439 雪花是没有经历自然选择的 There's no natural selection here.

402 00:40:40,440 --> 00:40:45,239 它没有 DNA 记录和复制信息 There's no DNA to record and reproduce information.

403 00:40:45,240 --> 00:40:50,680 它们是由物理学的基本定律自发产生的 These things arise spontaneously from basic laws of physics.

404 00:40:56,800 --> 00:41:01,639 雪花的错综复杂的美丽乍一看是令人困惑的 The intricate beauty of a snowflake is at first sight baffling,

405 00:41:01,640 --> 00:41:03,800 由于它们简单的历史背景 given the simplicity of their story.

406 00:41:04,920 --> 00:41:07,160 但实际上,这是一份礼物 But in fact, it's a gift.

407 00:41:08,280 --> 00:41:10,559 可以忽略不计的礼物 A gift of almost nothing.

408 00:41:10,560 --> 00:41:12,639 一个冻结的瞬间 One frozen moment

409 00:41:12,640 --> 00:41:16,039 可以揭露自然的基本规律 that can reveal how the underlying laws of nature

410 00:41:16,040 --> 00:41:19,000 导致看似无限复杂 can lead to seemingly infinite complexity.

411 00:41:24,120 --> 00:41:26,759 因为雪花的形成只需要几分钟 Because snowflakes form in minutes

412 00:41:26,760 --> 00:41:29,639 由单一的成分构成 and are made out of a single ingredient,

413 00:41:29,640 --> 00:41:31,439 具有奇怪的特性 with strange properties

414 00:41:31,440 --> 00:41:35,319 会产生各种各样的自然形态 that give rise to a vast array of naturally occurring forms

415 00:41:35,320 --> 00:41:38,520 大小和行为 of all shapes, sizes and behaviours.

416 00:41:42,760 --> 00:41:44,400 冰 Ice.

417 00:41:52,320 --> 00:41:55,320 你知道,清晨的雾,是如此的神秘 You know, it's so mystical when you leave in the morning in the fog.

418 00:41:56,960 --> 00:41:58,720 看看四周... You're just looking around...

419 00:42:00,320 --> 00:42:03,520 ...然后你能从雾中发现不同的形态 ...and then you see these shapes that come out of the fog.

420 00:42:13,040 --> 00:42:15,199 它们又大又重 They are big, big, heavy objects.

421 00:42:15,200 --> 00:42:19,480 比海上漂浮的任何物体都重 Far bigger than anything that we've created floating on the sea.

422 00:42:40,040 --> 00:42:41,359 我们意识到 We've got to remember,

423 00:42:41,360 --> 00:42:43,559 这是漂过纽芬兰的冰山 it was an iceberg that sailed past Newfoundland

424 00:42:43,560 --> 00:42:45,880 泰坦尼克号曾经因为它沉没 which ended up sinking the Titanic.

425 00:42:49,040 --> 00:42:51,480 冰山季,道格·艾伦出现在这里 Doug Allen is here because it's iceberg season.

426 00:42:54,320 --> 00:42:56,759 他是科学考察队的成员 He's part of a scientific expedition.

427 00:42:56,760 --> 00:43:01,039 每年夏天,数千座冰山从北极飘来 Every summer, thousands of icebergs float south from the Arctic

428 00:43:01,040 --> 00:43:02,759 进入航道和油田 into the shipping lanes and oilfields

429 00:43:02,760 --> 00:43:05,320 从纽芬兰的海岸 off the coast of Newfoundland.

430 00:43:07,280 --> 00:43:09,119 这个团队来到这里为了保护 This team are here to help protect

431 00:43:09,120 --> 00:43:11,919 数万亿的工业不受冰山的破坏 those multibillion dollar industries,

432 00:43:11,920 --> 00:43:15,760 通过尝试去了解冰山的走向 by trying to understand more about where the icebergs are heading.

433 00:43:17,280 --> 00:43:20,479 尼尔·里格斯是考察队的领队 The man leading the expedition is Neil Riggs.

434 00:43:20,480 --> 00:43:22,799 你把它再次放回水里吧 So you put it back in the water again, OK.

435 00:43:22,800 --> 00:43:24,239 如果我们失去控制 And if we lose control,

436 00:43:24,240 --> 00:43:25,839 我们就用它来保证安全 then we take it in and we secure it.

437 00:43:25,840 --> 00:43:28,000 如果没什么危险,我们就各回各家 And if that goes nowhere, we go home.

438 00:43:31,000 --> 00:43:33,959 冰山最大的问题是... The big problem with icebergs is simple...

439 00:43:33,960 --> 00:43:35,480 它们是漂浮的 They float.

440 00:43:42,880 --> 00:43:47,439 冰山反射雷达的效率 Iceberg ice reflects radar 69 times less effectively

441 00:43:47,440 --> 00:43:49,600 比横截面积相同的船只低 69 倍 than a ship with the same cross-sectional area.

442 00:43:51,960 --> 00:43:55,199 是的,我们这里有些 Yes, we've got some here.

443 00:43:55,200 --> 00:43:57,359 因此你只能在独自航行的时候 So you could be sailing along

444 00:43:57,360 --> 00:43:59,839 认真的驾驶并随时关注你的雷达 and doing very good seamanship, looking at your radar

445 00:43:59,840 --> 00:44:02,519 突然出现了不知名的物体 and there's the thing all of a sudden and you're upon it

446 00:44:02,520 --> 00:44:05,439 相对于你的船来说是一个巨大的冰块 and it's still a massive piece of ice relative to your ship.

447 00:44:05,440 --> 00:44:07,240 会把你的船撞出一个洞 So it can make a nice little hole.

448 00:44:10,160 --> 00:44:12,759 这个团队必须明白 The team will have to understand the influence

449 00:44:12,760 --> 00:44:14,359 可变因素的影响 of a large number of variables

450 00:44:14,360 --> 00:44:17,519 如果他们能分清无害的冰山 if they are to distinguish between harmless icebergs

451 00:44:17,520 --> 00:44:19,919 和危险的冰山 and dangerous ones.

452 00:44:19,920 --> 00:44:21,879 这是个复杂的谜团 It's a complicated jigsaw.

453 00:44:21,880 --> 00:44:23,559 你可以把它想象成犯罪现场 You could think of it as a crime scene

454 00:44:23,560 --> 00:44:26,039 你让法医进去 where you have the forensic people go in

455 00:44:26,040 --> 00:44:27,639 他们会发现一些线索 and they pick up little bits of clues,

456 00:44:27,640 --> 00:44:29,720 能描绘出一幅巨大的图像 and together you make a bigger picture.

457 00:44:30,800 --> 00:44:34,519 我所做的只是把我的这一小段添加到整体的图像中 What I'm doing is just adding my little piece to the overall picture

458 00:44:34,520 --> 00:44:39,240 希望能帮助他们的数学模型更加真实 and hopefully helping their mathematical models to be more real.

459 00:44:40,960 --> 00:44:43,999 道格是一名专业冷水潜水员 Doug is a specialist cold water diver.

460 00:44:44,000 --> 00:44:48,119 他的工作是给冰山的底部拍照 It's his job to photograph the underside of the icebergs.

461 00:44:48,120 --> 00:44:50,999 我们将去看看那些小的冰山 We'll go over to some of those smaller pieces.

462 00:44:51,000 --> 00:44:52,719 好的 OK. OK.

463 00:44:52,720 --> 00:44:55,639 是的,曼宁队长,我们已经准备好让潜水员... Yes, Captain Manning, we are OK to put the diver...

464 00:44:55,640 --> 00:44:58,240 里克·斯坦利在保证安全 Rick Stanley is looking after safety.

465 00:45:03,760 --> 00:45:05,359 谁知道接下来会发生什么? Who knows what's going to happen?

466 00:45:05,360 --> 00:45:07,479 这个冰山的压力太大了 There's so much pressure in this ice

467 00:45:07,480 --> 00:45:11,199 它在炸裂 that it blows, it explodes.

468 00:45:11,200 --> 00:45:13,439 但是冰山里面也有压力 But there's pressure in there

469 00:45:13,440 --> 00:45:15,839 能从冰山上刮掉一些冰块 that can blow a piece of iceberg off the ice

470 00:45:15,840 --> 00:45:17,720 大概 15 或 20 英尺 probably 15 or 20 feet.

471 00:45:25,040 --> 00:45:27,639 只是在突然之间 And we were just pottering around and suddenly,

472 00:45:27,640 --> 00:45:30,319 没有任何警告,整个冰山一分为二 with no warning at all, the whole thing split in half

473 00:45:30,320 --> 00:45:33,480 像是全部掉了下来 and it was almost like it was all falling into each other.

474 00:45:41,800 --> 00:45:43,719 这是不稳定的 This might be a bit unstable.

475 00:45:43,720 --> 00:45:45,639 这是个巨大的冰山 This is a huge berg.

476 00:45:45,640 --> 00:45:48,999 我宁愿潜到一个没有崩塌的地方 I'd rather dive around one that wasn't falling apart.

477 00:45:49,000 --> 00:45:50,200 是的 Yeah.

478 00:45:54,120 --> 00:45:56,559 这些巨大的冰山 These giant frozen mountains

479 00:45:56,560 --> 00:45:59,400 都是从原始形态开始成长的 are born from the most innocent beginnings.

480 00:46:04,520 --> 00:46:06,080 那就是雪花 Snowflakes.

481 00:46:08,480 --> 00:46:10,239 几千年来 Over thousands of years,

482 00:46:10,240 --> 00:46:12,959 它们压缩形成冰川 they compress to form glaciers,

483 00:46:12,960 --> 00:46:16,239 任何断开形成冰山 that then break off to form icebergs.

484 00:46:16,240 --> 00:46:19,360 平均一个冰山重达 20 万吨 An average one weighs 200,000 tonnes.

485 00:46:22,080 --> 00:46:23,839 大约由 And that, give or take,

486 00:46:23,840 --> 00:46:26,679 100 万亿片雪花构成 is around 100 trillion snowflakes

487 00:46:26,680 --> 00:46:29,479 考察队试图使用声纳机器人组合 that form the structures that the expedition is trying to model,

488 00:46:29,480 --> 00:46:33,119 和道格的第一手观察 using a combination of sonar robots

489 00:46:33,120 --> 00:46:35,120 来模拟冰山的结构 and Doug's first-hand observations.

490 00:46:36,800 --> 00:46:40,079 我基本上会仔细看一看 I'll basically have a good look at one side of the berg

491 00:46:40,080 --> 00:46:42,879 从地面到 30 米之间的冰山一侧 between the surface and 30 metres.

492 00:46:42,880 --> 00:46:44,319 告诉他们我看到的样子 Tell them what I saw,

493 00:46:44,320 --> 00:46:46,439 这意味着他们可以解释声纳 and it will mean that they can interpret the sonar

494 00:46:46,440 --> 00:46:47,759 返回的数据 the data that comes back.

495 00:46:47,760 --> 00:46:50,480 如果我亲眼看到的话,他们会有更好的主意的 They will get a better idea of it, if I've seen it for myself.

496 00:47:20,040 --> 00:47:23,440 冰山下非常诡异 It's quite eerie going down the side of the iceberg.

497 00:47:24,960 --> 00:47:29,000 你要进入黑暗,蓝绿交错 You're going down into the darkness, into the blue, into the green.

498 00:47:35,520 --> 00:47:39,319 偶尔会有一声巨响 And very occasionally there will be this really loud thud,

499 00:47:39,320 --> 00:47:42,279 就像有些人用手击打你 just like someone had hit you with the flat of their hand

500 00:47:42,280 --> 00:47:44,200 你胸膛的中央... in the centre of your chest...

501 00:47:45,600 --> 00:47:48,680 冰山撞击底部 ...where the iceberg is banging on the bottom.

502 00:47:56,920 --> 00:47:59,119 你不会想潜的太深 You really don't want to go too far down

503 00:47:59,120 --> 00:48:00,919 因为那里太危险了 because there is a real danger

504 00:48:00,920 --> 00:48:03,520 会被下面的冰山压扁 of being squished by the iceberg underneath.

505 00:48:08,120 --> 00:48:10,879 当潜水员潜入水中的时候你就会担心 Well, you always worry when divers are in the water.

506 00:48:10,880 --> 00:48:12,639 但是冰山潜水 But iceberg diving,

507 00:48:12,640 --> 00:48:16,239 会让你腹部以下的部分 there's even more of that anticipation and excitement

508 00:48:16,240 --> 00:48:19,040 更刺激 that goes on in the lower part of your belly.

509 00:48:28,080 --> 00:48:31,199 当你游到冰山附近开始看到它的细节时 So you swim in and you begin to see the details.

510 00:48:31,200 --> 00:48:35,719 你会发现深处的冰块 You begin to realise that this is not a flat wall of ice

511 00:48:35,720 --> 00:48:37,399 并不是扁平的 going into the depths.

512 00:48:37,400 --> 00:48:39,919 上面有一些小凹坑 This has tiny little dimples on it.

513 00:48:39,920 --> 00:48:42,720 看起来像一个巨大的高尔夫球 It almost looks like a giant golf ball.

514 00:48:49,160 --> 00:48:51,719 这些特征被添加到模型里 These features are added to the models,

515 00:48:51,720 --> 00:48:54,839 了解它们是如何影响冰山漂浮 to understand how they affect the way the icebergs float

516 00:48:54,840 --> 00:48:58,960 长距离移动和进入航道的方式 and travel over long distances and into the shipping lanes.

517 00:49:00,760 --> 00:49:04,159 这是对科学基础研究有利的贡献 It's good to contribute to science at a basic level like this.

518 00:49:04,160 --> 00:49:06,079 科学仍在发展 When the science is still developing,

519 00:49:06,080 --> 00:49:08,479 记录一些资料 to come in, take some shots, which helps scientists,

520 00:49:08,480 --> 00:49:09,960 是很有用的 that's really useful.

521 00:49:15,400 --> 00:49:17,679 尽管他们无法预测 For all their unpredictability,

522 00:49:17,680 --> 00:49:21,400 在冰山的活动中还是有规律可循的... there is regularity in the behaviour of icebergs...

523 00:49:24,120 --> 00:49:27,840 ...如果你仔细观察并提出正确的问题 ...if you look carefully and ask the right questions.

524 00:49:29,000 --> 00:49:31,400 这就是科学的意义所在 Which is what science is all about.

525 00:49:37,360 --> 00:49:39,799 最简单的问题是 And the simplest question of all

526 00:49:39,800 --> 00:49:43,040 它们显而易见的行为 is about the most obvious part of their behaviour.

527 00:49:45,240 --> 00:49:47,240 为什么冰山会漂浮? Why does ice float?

528 00:49:49,160 --> 00:49:50,999 这不是个幼稚的问题 That's not a naive question,

529 00:49:51,000 --> 00:49:55,160 因为没有其他常见的固体漂浮在它自己的液体上 because no other commonly occurring solid floats on its own liquid.

530 00:49:57,280 --> 00:50:01,440 答案在于水分子本身的结构 The answer lies in the structure of the water molecule itself.

531 00:50:02,840 --> 00:50:04,639 想想什么是分子 Think of what a molecule is.

532 00:50:04,640 --> 00:50:07,119 以水分子为例 Take a water molecule, for example.

533 00:50:07,120 --> 00:50:10,959 是两个氢原子附着在一个氧原子上 It's two hydrogen atoms stuck to an oxygen atom.

534 00:50:10,960 --> 00:50:16,199 两个氢原子核,带正电荷 That's two hydrogen nuclei, which have a positive electric charge,

535 00:50:16,200 --> 00:50:20,999 附着在带有正电荷的氧原子核上 sticking to an oxygen nucleus, which has a positive electric charge.

536 00:50:21,000 --> 00:50:24,439 它们被带负电荷的电子所包围。 And they're surrounded by negatively-charged electrons.

537 00:50:24,440 --> 00:50:27,039 这就是原子附着在一起的原因 That's what sticks the atoms together.

538 00:50:27,040 --> 00:50:29,679 带负电荷的电子 The negatively-charged electrons

539 00:50:29,680 --> 00:50:33,119 倾向于聚集在氧原子核周围 tend to cluster around the oxygen nucleus,

540 00:50:33,120 --> 00:50:39,839 两个氢原子略微带有正电荷 leaving those two legs of hydrogen slightly positively charged.

541 00:50:39,840 --> 00:50:42,639 以为着这些正电荷 That means that those positive charges

542 00:50:42,640 --> 00:50:48,039 能吸引其它水分子的负电荷 can attract other negatively-charged ends of other water molecules.

543 00:50:48,040 --> 00:50:53,399 所以一个氧原子和两个氢原子结合 So an oxygen can come and orientate itself and bond to that leg.

544 00:50:53,400 --> 00:50:56,919 同时,其它水分子的氧原子 On the other side, another oxygen from another water molecule

545 00:50:56,920 --> 00:51:00,519 将会被带正电荷的两个氢原子吸引 will be attracted to the positive charge and bond to that leg.

546 00:51:00,520 --> 00:51:03,959 在顶端,氢键会连接它们 On the top, you get a hydrogen bonding to that leg.

547 00:51:03,960 --> 00:51:06,599 这样你就明白了这种结构 So you can see you build up a structure,

548 00:51:06,600 --> 00:51:08,359 一种开放的晶体结构 an open crystal structure.

549 00:51:08,360 --> 00:51:11,879 六边形的形状 A shape which is actually hexagonal.

550 00:51:11,880 --> 00:51:15,359 这种开放的结构 And it's that property, that open structure,

551 00:51:15,360 --> 00:51:18,279 反映了水分子的 which is a reflection of the underlying structure

552 00:51:18,280 --> 00:51:20,599 基本结构 of the water molecule itself

553 00:51:20,600 --> 00:51:26,319 让液态水比固态冰密度大 that leads to the solid ice being less dense than the liquid.

554 00:51:26,320 --> 00:51:33,640 这就是为什么冰块和冰山会漂浮在液态水上 And that is why ice cubes and icebergs float on liquid water.

555 00:51:37,280 --> 00:51:39,679 冰六边形的结构 The hexagonal structure of ice

556 00:51:39,680 --> 00:51:43,440 是将分子结合在一起的自然力量的缩影 is a shadow of the forces of nature that hold molecules together.

557 00:51:48,120 --> 00:51:51,000 这种力量能作用于每一个水分子... Forces that shape every molecule of water...

558 00:51:53,080 --> 00:51:56,840 ...形成了六边对称的雪花 ...and that create a sixfold symmetry of snowflakes.

559 00:52:01,880 --> 00:52:04,519 你能说它们都是相同的 You can tell they're all the same thing.

560 00:52:04,520 --> 00:52:06,000 它们都是六边的 They're all six-sided.

561 00:52:07,320 --> 00:52:10,519 然而,你也可以通过眼睛看到 And yet, you can also see just by eye,

562 00:52:10,520 --> 00:52:12,159 每一个都是不同的 that every one is different.

563 00:52:12,160 --> 00:52:14,319 有些甚至完全不一样 Some radically different.

564 00:52:14,320 --> 00:52:19,879 很难想象这有多美丽多复杂 It's very difficult to imagine how all this beauty and complexity

565 00:52:19,880 --> 00:52:24,560 能从一些简单的自然法则中自发产生 could emerge spontaneously from a few simple laws of nature.

566 00:52:30,000 --> 00:52:32,279 当雪花从天空落下来时 As snowflakes fall through the sky,

567 00:52:32,280 --> 00:52:35,760 它们围绕一个对称的结构形成和生长 they form and grow around a symmetrical framework.

568 00:52:37,600 --> 00:52:41,199 所以如果你开始观察一个冰晶 So if you start with an ice crystal

569 00:52:41,200 --> 00:52:45,079 一些是平滑的 and some part of it has got a flat bit,

570 00:52:45,080 --> 00:52:47,119 而一些六边晶体 part of the hexagonal if you like,

571 00:52:47,120 --> 00:52:48,959 却是粗糙的 and some bits a bit rough,

572 00:52:48,960 --> 00:52:51,759 水分子更容易结合 then water molecules are more likely to bind

573 00:52:51,760 --> 00:52:54,439 粗糙的部分 to the rough bits than the flat bits.

574 00:52:54,440 --> 00:52:56,719 它们有多种方式 There are basically more ways for them,

575 00:52:56,720 --> 00:52:58,999 附着在一起 more sites for them to stick to.

576 00:52:59,000 --> 00:53:00,919 意味着粗糙的部分 So that means that the rough bits

577 00:53:00,920 --> 00:53:03,959 会结合更多的水分子 will accumulate more molecules than the flat bit

578 00:53:03,960 --> 00:53:07,039 附着在一起的速度会很快,直到变得平滑 and it'll build up faster until it gets flat.

579 00:53:07,040 --> 00:53:08,799 然后它们会慢下来 And then it'll slow down.

580 00:53:08,800 --> 00:53:10,679 所以有一种趋势 So there's a tendency

581 00:53:10,680 --> 00:53:14,439 对于冰晶本身的基础结构 for the underlying structure of the ice crystals themselves

582 00:53:14,440 --> 00:53:17,800 为了变成更大的单元 to get echoed into bigger and bigger units.

583 00:53:19,320 --> 00:53:21,999 它们会进行第二个过程分岔 Then there's a second process called branching,

584 00:53:22,000 --> 00:53:23,999 或者叫做分支不稳定性 or the branch instability.

585 00:53:24,000 --> 00:53:26,119 当雪花进入云中特别潮湿的区域 That happens when the snowflake

586 00:53:26,120 --> 00:53:29,639 会产生这种现象 goes into a particularly humid region in a cloud.

587 00:53:29,640 --> 00:53:33,159 这是一个有很多水分子的区域 So that's a region where there are lots of water molecules available.

588 00:53:33,160 --> 00:53:36,639 在扁平的表面会有一点凸起 So you get a little bump on the flat surface.

589 00:53:36,640 --> 00:53:41,959 这个凸起更容易让水分子附着 That bump is more likely to have water molecules bind to it,

590 00:53:41,960 --> 00:53:44,359 会结合更多 it's got more binding sites, if you like.

591 00:53:44,360 --> 00:53:48,079 所以如果有很多水分子的话,它会很快生长 So it will grow quickly if there are lots of water molecules available.

592 00:53:48,080 --> 00:53:50,479 会长成一个尖状物 So it will grow into a spike

593 00:53:50,480 --> 00:53:53,759 然后其它的凸起会出现,同时长成尖状物 and then other bumps can appear and they'll grow into spikes.

594 00:53:53,760 --> 00:53:56,559 这就是为什么你觉得雪花是星状的 So that's how you get that star-like,

595 00:53:56,560 --> 00:53:58,880 尖锐的结构 sharp structures on snowflakes.

596 00:54:00,040 --> 00:54:04,319 但是接下来雪花又进入一个不太潮湿的地区 But then the snowflake drifts back into a region that's less humid,

597 00:54:04,320 --> 00:54:06,839 那里几乎没有什么水分子 so there are less water molecules available.

598 00:54:06,840 --> 00:54:09,399 然后,刻面再次接管 Then the faceting takes over again

599 00:54:09,400 --> 00:54:13,399 光滑的边缘和六边形结构开始形成 and smooth edges, hexagonal structures start to form.

600 00:54:13,400 --> 00:54:15,479 接下来进入潮湿地区 Then it goes into a humid region

601 00:54:15,480 --> 00:54:18,000 再次产生分岔现象 and the branching takes over and you get the branches.

602 00:54:26,840 --> 00:54:29,879 这是多么复杂的过程啊 It's a wonderfully complex and intricate process.

603 00:54:29,880 --> 00:54:32,199 我从中明白了一个美妙的道理 And the thing I find most beautiful about it

604 00:54:32,200 --> 00:54:34,679 就是当你看雪花的时候 is that when you look at a snowflake,

605 00:54:34,680 --> 00:54:37,199 你其实在品味它这段的历史 then you can read its entire history,

606 00:54:37,200 --> 00:54:40,240 你能看到它变为固态的历史 you can see its history made solid.

607 00:54:43,000 --> 00:54:47,239 每一片雪花都有它自己的历史 Every individual snowflake has a different history.

608 00:54:47,240 --> 00:54:51,119 每一片雪花都遵循着一条稍微不同的路径 Every snowflake followed a slightly different path

609 00:54:51,120 --> 00:54:53,199 穿过云层落到地面 through the clouds and onto the ground.

610 00:54:53,200 --> 00:54:58,679 也就是说每一片雪花以一种微妙的不同方式成长 And that means every snowflake grew in a subtly different way.

611 00:54:58,680 --> 00:55:02,279 这就是为什么没有两片雪花会是一样的 And that's why no two snowflakes are ever alike,

612 00:55:02,280 --> 00:55:07,400 因为没有两条穿越时间的路是一样的 because no two paths through time are ever alike.

613 00:55:14,560 --> 00:55:17,480 当你看雪花,你是在看整个历史... When you look at a snowflake, you see history...

614 00:55:18,680 --> 00:55:24,320 ...和大自然一个凝固的瞬间的深层结构 ...and the deep structure of nature condensed into a frozen moment.

615 00:55:26,960 --> 00:55:29,520 看,有好多星星! Look how many stars it is together!

616 00:55:30,720 --> 00:55:33,000 看着好清楚 You can see them so clearly.

617 00:55:35,880 --> 00:55:37,159 你看 You look.

618 00:55:37,160 --> 00:55:39,679 当你仔细思考它时,这是美妙的 It is wonderful, you know, that when you think about it,

619 00:55:39,680 --> 00:55:43,720 整个宇宙、所有的物理定律都包含在雪花里 the whole universe, the whole of physics is contained in a snowflake.

620 00:55:45,040 --> 00:55:48,959 为了构建雪花,需要四种自然之力 To describe them, you need all four forces of nature.

621 00:55:48,960 --> 00:55:51,239 你需要引力 You need gravity

622 00:55:51,240 --> 00:55:53,799 使雪花能穿越云层 to allow the snowflake to fall down through the clouds

623 00:55:53,800 --> 00:55:55,159 落下来 and onto the ground.

624 00:55:55,160 --> 00:55:59,839 你需要电磁力吸附水分子 You need electromagnetism to stick all those water molecules together

625 00:55:59,840 --> 00:56:02,839 形成美丽的晶体 to form these beautiful crystals.

626 00:56:02,840 --> 00:56:04,599 你需要原子核作用力 You need the nuclear forces

627 00:56:04,600 --> 00:56:08,479 聚集氧原子 to stick the atomic nuclei of oxygen together.

628 00:56:08,480 --> 00:56:12,639 然后你需要理解对称 And then you need to understand about symmetry

629 00:56:12,640 --> 00:56:14,599 和对称破缺 and symmetry breaking.

630 00:56:14,600 --> 00:56:18,079 所有的基本概念强调了现代物理学 All the fundamental ideas that underline modern physics

631 00:56:18,080 --> 00:56:21,880 能够还原雪花之旅 can be thought of in the journey of a snowflake to the ground.

632 00:56:25,440 --> 00:56:28,559 噢,看呐!你认为那里有多少颗星星? Oh, look! How many stars do you think there are?

633 00:56:28,560 --> 00:56:30,160 哇噢! Oh, wow!

634 00:56:32,560 --> 00:56:36,679 每片雪花都是由相同的元素构成 Every snowflake shares the same building blocks,

635 00:56:36,680 --> 00:56:42,919 构建的核心都是基本的、美丽的自然对称力量 the same basic, beautiful symmetric forces of nature at their heart.

636 00:56:42,920 --> 00:56:46,079 但是因为它们不同的历史,不同的形成方式 But because of their histories, because of the way they formed,

637 00:56:46,080 --> 00:56:47,639 它们全都不一样 they're all different.

638 00:56:47,640 --> 00:56:51,159 太阳系和行星也是这样 And so it is with solar systems, so it is with planets

639 00:56:51,160 --> 00:56:53,199 人也是这样 and so it is with people.

640 00:56:53,200 --> 00:56:55,759 我们全是由相同的元素构成 We're all made out of the same building blocks,

641 00:56:55,760 --> 00:56:59,359 但我们都有细微的不同 but we're all slightly and magnificently different

642 00:56:59,360 --> 00:57:02,160 因为我们形成的历史 because of the history of our formation.

643 00:57:09,200 --> 00:57:11,999 我们在宇宙中看到的结构 The structures we see in the universe,

644 00:57:12,000 --> 00:57:15,999 像恒星、行星、树木和雪花 like stars and planets and trees and snowflakes,

645 00:57:16,000 --> 00:57:18,080 是更深层次事物的缩影 are shadows of something deeper.

646 00:57:19,840 --> 00:57:24,400 它们掩盖了潜在的美和简单性 They mask an underlying beauty and simplicity.

647 00:57:26,240 --> 00:57:31,440 思考我们的起源和进化是美妙的... But isn't it a beautiful thought that our origin and evolution...

648 00:57:32,480 --> 00:57:36,639 ...就像暴风雪中雪花的结构一样 ...just like the structure of a snowflake in a snowstorm,

649 00:57:36,640 --> 00:57:41,200 能用一些简单的自然法则来解释 can be explained by a few simple natural laws?

650 00:57:42,240 --> 00:57:45,559 这是个美妙的想法 And isn't it a wonderful idea that that thought came

651 00:57:45,560 --> 00:57:48,399 这个想法来自于仔细观察自然 from just looking carefully at nature

652 00:57:48,400 --> 00:57:50,200 并试图理解自然 and trying to understand it?

653 00:58:03,720 --> 00:58:09,800 ♪ 你是我的幸运星 ♪ You are my lucky star

654 00:58:11,600 --> 00:58:15,279 ♪ 你打开了天堂的大门 ♪ You open heaven's portals

655 00:58:15,280 --> 00:58:19,320 ♪ 为了这个可怜的凡人 ♪ Here on Earth for this poor mortal

656 00:58:20,280 --> 00:58:26,240 ♪ 你是我的幸运星 ♪ ♪ You're my lucky star. ♪